Jump to content

Search the hub

Showing results for tags 'Health Disparities'.

More search options

  • Search By Tags

    Start to type the tag you want to use, then select from the list.

  • Search By Author

Content Type


  • All
    • Commissioning, service provision and innovation in health and care
    • Coronavirus (COVID-19)
    • Culture
    • Improving patient safety
    • Investigations, risk management and legal issues
    • Leadership for patient safety
    • Organisations linked to patient safety (UK and beyond)
    • Patient engagement
    • Patient safety in health and care
    • Patient Safety Learning
    • Professionalising patient safety
    • Research, data and insight
    • Miscellaneous


  • Commissioning, service provision and innovation in health and care
    • Commissioning and funding patient safety
    • Digital health and care service provision
    • Health records and plans
    • Innovation programmes in health and care
    • Climate change/sustainability
  • Coronavirus (COVID-19)
    • Blogs
    • Data, research and statistics
    • Frontline insights during the pandemic
    • Good practice and useful resources
    • Guidance
    • Mental health
    • Exit strategies
    • Patient recovery
  • Culture
    • Bullying and fear
    • Good practice
    • Occupational health and safety
    • Safety culture programmes
    • Second victim
    • Speak Up Guardians
    • Staff safety
    • Whistle blowing
  • Improving patient safety
    • Clinical governance and audits
    • Design for safety
    • Disasters averted/near misses
    • Equipment and facilities
    • Error traps
    • Health inequalities
    • Human factors (improving human performance in care delivery)
    • Improving systems of care
    • Implementation of improvements
    • International development and humanitarian
    • Safety stories
    • Stories from the front line
    • Workforce and resources
  • Investigations, risk management and legal issues
    • Investigations and complaints
    • Risk management and legal issues
  • Leadership for patient safety
    • Business case for patient safety
    • Boards
    • Clinical leadership
    • Exec teams
    • Inquiries
    • International reports
    • National/Governmental
    • Patient Safety Commissioner
    • Quality and safety reports
    • Techniques
    • Other
  • Organisations linked to patient safety (UK and beyond)
    • Government and ALB direction and guidance
    • International patient safety
    • Regulators and their regulations
  • Patient engagement
    • Consent and privacy
    • Harmed care patient pathways/post-incident pathways
    • How to engage for patient safety
    • Keeping patients safe
    • Patient-centred care
    • Patient stories
  • Patient safety in health and care
    • Care settings
    • Conditions
    • Diagnosis
    • High risk areas
    • Learning disabilities
    • Medication
    • Mental health
    • Men's health
    • Patient management
    • Social care
    • Transitions of care
    • Women's health
  • Patient Safety Learning
    • Patient Safety Learning campaigns
    • Patient Safety Learning documents
    • Patient Safety Learning news archive
    • 2-minute Tuesdays
    • Patient Safety Learning Annual Conference 2019
    • Patient Safety Learning Annual Conference 2018
    • Patient Safety Learning Awards 2019
    • Patient Safety Learning Interviews
    • Patient Safety Learning webinars
  • Professionalising patient safety
    • Accreditation for patient safety
    • Competency framework
    • Medical students
    • Patient safety standards
    • Training
  • Research, data and insight
    • Data and insight
    • Research
  • Miscellaneous


  • News


  • Files


  • Community Calendar

Find results in...

Find results that contain...

Date Created

  • Start

Last updated

  • Start

Filter by number of...


  • Start



First name

Last name


Join a private group (if appropriate)

About me



Found 568 results
  1. News Article
    Unconscious bias in the UK healthcare system is contributing to the stark racial disparity in maternal healthcare outcomes, a conference has heard. The Black Maternal Health Conference UK, also heard that black women not being listened to by healthcare professionals was also a contributing factor. The conference, organised by The Motherhood Group, was arranged to highlight the racial inequality in maternal healthcare and the disparity in maternal mortality between white, ethnic minority and black women in the UK. Black women in the UK are four times more likely to die in pregnancy and childbirth than white women, according to a report published by MBRRACE-UK. Asian women are twice as likely to die in pregnancy or childbirth. Sandra Igwe, who founded the NGO The Motherhood Group in 2016 after the traumatic birth of her daughter, told the PA Media that the event was an opportunity to “bridge the community, stakeholders, professionals, [and] government”, de-stigmatise mental health and bring about change to improve black maternal health. “There are so many stats – so why wouldn’t we have a whole day’s conference dedicated to addressing these, just scratching the surface of some of the stats?” Charities and activists have been raising alarm bells about the dangerous consequences of unconscious bias in maternal healthcare for many years. Igwe co-chaired the Birthrights inquiry, a year-long investigation into racial injustice in the UK maternity services, which heard testimony from women, birthing people, healthcare professionals and lawyers and concluded that “systemic racism exists in the UK and in public services”. Read full story Source: The Guardian, 20 March 2023 Sandra Igwe is our hub topic lead for Black Maternal Health. Read our recent interview with Sandra.
  2. Event
    Communities are playing an increasingly important role in improving health and meeting the wellbeing needs of people locally, highlighted in part by their role in the response to the Covid-19 pandemic. Integrated care systems (ICSs) need to recognise the role communities can play in improving and sustaining good health, and as part of this they need to seek greater involvement with local voluntary, community and social enterprise (VCSE) groups at the place and neighbourhood level, where the link local communities is at its strongest. This conference will provide an opportunity to discuss the impact of community-led and person-centred approaches to improving health and wellbeing, and to explore what more can be done to build on community interventions, assets and solutions that developed as a response to the pandemic. It will also consider the challenges of demonstrating value and of working with communities to assess need and provide services. You will hear from community groups who have worked with others – including their ICS, local health system or local authority – to develop a collaborative approach to tackling health inequalities.
  3. News Article
    Health Education England (HEE) has outlined a new vision for general practice training which it says will better prepare GPs for future models of care. The programme will have greater focus on areas such as addressing health inequalities and managing the growing proportion of patients with mental health care needs seen in general practice, HEE said. Innovative placements, perhaps with charities, third sector organisations and services such as CAHMS will be explored, the Training the Future GP report said. And it should include educational opportunities around improving cancer detection and referral, the report said, as well as training in the harms of overdiagnosis. Overall the goal is to move to a flexible model of training that meets the needs, skills and experiences of the trainee as well as the area they are working in. HEE said it would also continue to work to address issues of discrimination, prejudice, bias and specifically racism at individual, institutional and systemic levels, and to reduce differential attainment. It will include plans to ensure patients in deprived areas are able to access care, with the development of specific training offers on these issues and prioritising expansion of training capacity to areas in need. Read full story Source: Pulse, 17 March 2023
  4. News Article
    Life expectancy in the UK has grown at a slower rate than comparable countries over the past seven decades, according to researchers, who say this is the result of widening inequality. The UK lags behind all other countries in the group of G7 advanced economies except the US, according to a new analysis of global life expectancy rankings published in the Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. While life expectancy has increased in absolute terms, similar countries have experienced larger increases, they wrote. In the 1950s, the UK had one of the longest life expectancies in the world, ranking seventh globally behind countries such as Denmark, Norway and Sweden, but in 2021 the UK was ranked 29th. The researchers said this was partly due to income inequality, which rose considerably in the UK during and after the 1980s. Prof Martin McKee, of the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, said: “That rise also saw an increase in the variation in life expectancy between different social groups. One reason why the overall increase in life expectancy has been so sluggish in the UK is that in recent years it has fallen for poorer groups". Read full story Source: The Guardian, 16 March 2023
  5. Content Article
    Key findings The increase in incidence of Type 1 diabetes observed in the first year of the Covid-19 pandemic was followed by a continuing increase in the numbers newly diagnosed with the condition in 2021/22. Almost all of those with Type 2 diabetes were overweight or obese, and almost half had a diastolic or systolic blood pressure in the hypertensive range Despite reductions in the percentages recorded as requiring additional support between 2020/21 and 2021/22, over a third of children and young people were assessed as requiring additional psychological support outside of multidisciplinary meetings Inequalities persist in terms of the use of diabetes related technologies in relation to ethnicity and deprivation. Recommendations Commissioners should ensure adequate staffing of full multidisciplinary diabetes teams to manage the increasing numbers of cases of Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes observed since 2020, who are trained to facilitate the optimal use of new diabetes-related technologies. Children and young people with Type 1 diabetes should have equitable access to diabetes care, irrespective of social deprivation, ethnicity or geography. They should be offered a choice of diabetes technology that is appropriate for their individual needs with families being made aware of the potential differences in outcome with different modalities of insulin delivery and blood glucose monitoring. Health checks for children and young people with diabetes are essential for early recognition of complications. The need for tests and the results should be clearly communicated to families as part of their individual care package, and completion rates of checks should be monitored through the year. Awareness of diabetes symptomatology amongst the public should be enhanced to avoid newly diagnosed children and young people presenting with Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Studies should be funded to derive evidence for interventions supporting pre-diabetic children young people to avoid progression to Type 2 diabetes.
  6. News Article
    A new US study highlights a striking racial disparity in infant deaths: Black babies experienced the highest rate of sudden unexpected deaths (SIDS) in 2020, dying at almost three times the rate of White infants. The findings were part of research by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, which also found a 15% increase in sudden infant deaths among babies of all races from 2019 to 2020, making SIDS the third leading cause of infant death in the United States after congenital abnormalities and the complications of premature birth. “In minority communities, the rates are going in the wrong direction,” said Scott Krugman, vice chair of the department of pediatrics and an expert on SIDS at Sinai Hospital in Baltimore. The study found that rising SIDS rates in 2020 was likely attributable to diagnostic shifting — or reclassifying the cause of death. The causes of the rise in sleep-related deaths of Black infants remain unclear but it coincided with the arrival of the coronavirus pandemic, which disproportionately affected the health and wealth of Black communities. Read full story (paywalled) Source: The Washington Post, 13 March 2023
  7. News Article
    Covid-19 may not have taken as great a toll on the mental health of most people as earlier research has indicated, a new study suggests. The pandemic resulted in “minimal” changes in mental health symptoms among the general population, according to a review of 137 studies from around the world led by researchers at McGill University in Canada, and published in the British Medical Journal. Brett Thombs, a psychiatry professor at McGill University and senior author, said some of the public narrative around the mental health impacts of Covid-19 were based on “poor-quality studies and anecdotes”, which became “self-fulfilling prophecies”, adding that there was a need for more “rigorous science”. However, some experts disputed this, warning such readings could obscure the impact on individual groups such as children, women and people with low incomes or pre-existing mental health problems. They also said other robust studies had reached different conclusions. Read full story Source: The Guardian, 8 March 2023
  8. News Article
    Nearly three-quarters of children detained under the mental health act are girls, a new report has found, amid warnings youngsters face a “postcode lottery” in their wait for treatment. Average waiting times between children being referred to mental health services and starting treatment have increased for the first time since 2017 with the children’s commissioner describing support across the country as “patchy”. In the annual report on children’s mental health services, the watchdog warned that, although the average wait is 40 days, some children are waiting as long as 80 days for treatment after being referred in 2021-22. The analysis, published on International Women’s day, also says young girls represented the highest proportion of children detained under the mental health act last year, highlighting “stark and worrying” gender inequalities. Read full story Source: The Independent, 7 March 2023 Further reading on the hub: Top picks: Women's health inequity
  9. Content Article
    The Office of the Children’s Commissioner The Office of the Children's Commissioner promotes the rights, views and interests of children in policies or decisions affecting their lives. They particularly represent children who are vulnerable or who find it hard to make their views known. The Office of the Children's Commissioner is an executive non-departmental public body, sponsored by the Department for Education. Report findings This report outlines its main findings in understanding children’s access to mental health services in England in financial year 2021-22 as follows: Of the 1.4 million children estimated to have a mental health disorder, less than half (48%) received at least 1 contact with Children and young people’s mental health services (CYPMHS) and 34% received at least 2 contacts with CYPMHS. The percentage of children who had their referrals closed before treatment has increased for the first time in years. In 2021-22, 32% of children who were referred did not receive treatment compared to lower numbers in 2020-21 (24%), 2019-20 (27%) and 2018-19 (36%). There remains wide variation across the country in how many children’s referrals were closed without treatment, from as low as 5% of referrals in NHS East Sussex to 50% in NHS North Cumbria. The average waiting time between a child being referred to CYPMHS and starting treatment increased from 32 days in 2020-21 to 40 days in 2021-22. The average waiting time for children to enter treatment (defined as having two contacts with CYPMHS) varies widely by CCG from as quick as 13 days in NHS Leicester City to as long as 80 days in NHS Sunderland. Spending on children’s mental health services has increased every year, after adjusting for inflation, since 2017-18. CCGs spent £927 million on CYPMHS in 2021-22, equal to 1% of the total budget allocated to them. This compares to £869 million in 2020-21 – an increase of 7% in real terms. The share of CCGs spending over 1% of their total budget increased from 30% in 2020- 21 to 45% in 2021-22. The number of children admitted to inpatient mental health wards continues to fall, as does the number of detentions of children under the Mental Health Act each year. Of the 869 detentions of children under the Mental Health Act in 2021-22, 71% were of girls An increasing number of children, many of whom have mental health difficulties but are not admitted to hospital, are being deprived of their liberty in other settings. These children are hidden from view as they do not appear in any official statistics, but research suggests that over ten times as many children are being deprived of liberty in this way in 2023 as in 2017-18. Children in inpatient mental health settings who we spoke to wanted more, earlier intervention to prevent crisis admissions – sometimes children are presenting multiple times at A&E before an inpatient admission is considered. Much more can be done to make inpatient mental health wards feel safe and familial. Children reported a huge variation in the quality of relationships they had with staff. For example, while some children felt they knew staff genuinely cared about them, one child described how staff would only refer to children by their initials, rather than their name. There appears to be a particularly acute issue with the quality of night staff. Education was viewed very positively by most of the children spoken to for this report, and highlights the importance of high-quality education in these settings for children’s recovery as well as their learning. The data collected on children in inpatient settings, including demographic information and information about key safeguards for children, is patchy and makes it harder to improve quality.
  10. Content Article
    Informed consent The NHS defines informed consent as: “… the person must be given all of the information about what the treatment involves, including the benefits and risks, whether there are reasonable alternative treatments, and what will happen if treatment does not go ahead.”[4] This is often broken down into the acronym BRAN (Benefits, Risks, Alternatives and doing Nothing).[5] The landmark UK Supreme Court judgment Montgomery v Lanarkshire Health Board case in 2015 reaffirmed this principle in law, setting out the legal duty of doctors to disclose information to patients about risks.[6] However, despite this legal obligation, far too often we see cases of avoidable patient harm where there has been failure of informed consent. Although this is an issue that can impact any patient, this is often particularly notable in health conditions and areas of care that predominantly affect women. In this blog, we will look at three areas where failures of informed consent have patient safety implications for women: receiving information about benefits and risks being told about alternative treatments and options, and the impact on patients after failures of informed consent. Receiving information about benefits and risks To provide informed consent, patients need to be made aware of the benefits and risks of a procedure or treatment before deciding whether to proceed. The Independent Medicines and Medical Devices Safety (IMMDS) review highlighted this as a recurring point of concern in medical interventions predominantly affecting women. This Review examined how the healthcare system responded to the harmful side effects of three medical interventions: hormone pregnancy tests, sodium valproate and pelvic mesh implants, uncovering a truly shocking degree of avoidable harm over a period of decades.[7] Let’s look at the case of sodium valproate; an epilepsy treatment that is potentially harmful to the developing fetus and can lead to physical deformities and learning difficulties in children if taken when the woman is pregnant – a condition known as Fetal Valproate Syndrome. The IMMDS Review highlighted that many pregnant women who were taking sodium valproate as an epilepsy treatment did so without knowing that this could harm their unborn child. What is particularly concerning in this example is that it is not a historic problem. Despite national attention on the findings of this Review and the serious harm caused, there are still women taking sodium valproate during pregnancy today who are not aware of the associated risks. This has been identified as one of the three top priorities areas of work for Dr Henrietta Hughes, the new Patient Safety Commissioner for England.[8] Information and alternative treatments and options Having choices, and the opportunity to discuss different options, is an important part of informed consent. When considering healthcare treatment patients often find themselves reliant on healthcare professionals to tell them about the full range of options. An example of where having this choice may not always be the case, and can be detrimental to women’s health, is hysteroscopy. Hysteroscopy is a procedure used as a diagnostic tool which involves a long, thin tube being passed through the vagina and cervix, into the womb, often with little or no anaesthesia. While some women do not find the procedure painful, many experience severely painful and traumatic hysteroscopies, raising significant patient safety concerns.[9] One key issue commonly highlighted is that women are not always being told of the possibility of severe pain or are not being offered the full range of pain management options available to them for a hysteroscopy. Many are just told to expect mild period-like cramping and to take simple analgesics, such as paracetamol, beforehand.[10] [11] Patient feedback suggests that approaches to this across the country are not consistent. Some women receive no information about pain management options, while others are able to discuss various options, including a general anaesthetic. At Patient Safety Learning we have recently highlighted the need for improvements in this area, calling for an independent review of these services, including the application of informed consent.[9] There are also concerns that the choices offered to women may vary depending on their race. Last year the organisation Five X More published a survey into Black women’s experiences of maternity services in the UK which raised serious concerns about inconsistences in how Black and Black mixed women were approached compared to white women or their own family members who were white. Examples it highlighted included: "... some women felt that they were not always provided with the opportunity to make informed decisions (“I didn’t request pethidine yet I was given it”); that they were pressured into making decisions about treatment (“…I found the attitude for an induction to be very forceful”); that procedures were performed without consent (“…She said she wanted to see how dilated I was, but also carried out a cervical stretch without my prior knowledge or permission), and that medication was administered, sometimes by junior or student members of staff without permission”.[12] Impact after failures of informed consent As well as the concerns and issues around lack of informed consent at the time of care and treatment, it can also have long-reaching consequences afterwards for the patient. An example of this is women who have been harmed by surgical mesh. As noted in the IMMDS Review, many women reported a failure of informed consent: “… they never knew they had mesh inserted, or where they gave consent for ‘tape’ insertion they did not know they were being implanted with polypropylene mesh”.[7] Many women harmed by mesh have been forced to live with a constant reminder of this lack of consent and abuse of trust, as they deal with significant health problems and difficulties in accessing mesh removal through the NHS.[13] [14] [15] It is hard to overstate the emotional and psychological impact this can have on a patient. These experiences serve to significantly undermine trust in healthcare and healthcare professionals. Returning to the example of hysteroscopy procedures, in sharing their experiences with us on the hub many women spoke about ongoing feelings of violation following experiences of severe pain. These feelings of violation are often exacerbated by the fact that they were not informed of the risk of severe pain beforehand. Most shockingly perhaps, there are cases where women asked for the procedure to be stopped due to the level of pain and their wishes were not followed.[9] This raises serious questions around how patients are responded to when actively withdrawing their consent. In some cases the associated trauma has translated into a reluctance to attend other important appointments, such as cervical smear tests, potentially compromising their long-term health. This dangerous knock-on effect has also been raised by women who experienced painful contraceptive device (IUD) procedures, and again did not feel adequately informed beforehand.[16] Influence of paternalistic, sexist, and misogynist attitudes Absence of informed consent is not an issue that solely affects women. However, as we have shown, there are many examples of consent issues that relate to care and treatment predominantly affecting women. Failures of informed consent are driven by a range of factors, including a lack of training, extremely busy working environments and communication difficulties. However, in the cases discussed here where informed consent has failed, many of those women affected have spoken about this being interwoven with concerns about paternalistic, sexist and misogynistic treatment. There is now a wealth of evidence around this issue, and more broadly about a massive gender health gap which impacts on women’s care and treatment in a range of ways, from the point of diagnosis through to treatment and aftercare.[17] [18] Far too often women still find themselves met with defensive and unresponsive attitudes from the healthcare system and can often feel belittled, dismissed and patronised.[19] Women’s Health Strategy The gender health gap is becoming widely acknowledged and last year the UK Government published a new Women’s Health Strategy for England seeking to close this gap. One area this Strategy identifies is the need for improvements in informed consent and shared decision-making to support women to make informed decisions about their health and care. It also refers to ongoing work by the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists to develop new consent guidance for nine gynaecological procedures. The Strategy includes a six-point long term plan for making a transformational change in women’s healthcare, and tying into the #EmbraceEquity theme of this year’s International Women’s Day one of these points is: “Ensuring women’s voices are heard – tackling taboos and stigmas, ensuring women are listened to by healthcare professionals, and increasing representation of women at all levels of the health and care system.”[20] The ambition behind this strategy is welcome, as is the Government’s decision to appoint a new Women’s Health Ambassador, Dame Lesley Regan, to drive system-level changes to close the gender health gap.[21] However, whether these good intentions will be translated into real progress and improvements in women’s health is yet to be seen. In talking about implementing changes, the Women’s Health Strategy notes the wide and varied range of stakeholders that will need to be involved in this effort and states that the Government ‘will develop a delivery plan for the commitments set out in this strategy’. However, there is currently no timetable for this or indication of what resources may be allocated to support this work. Improving informed consent Patient Safety Learning believes that plans to improve informed consent need to be a core part of the Government’s delivery plan for its Women’s Health Strategy. The Strategy refers to the increased use of patient decision aids and conversation aids to support informed consent, including a series of digital tools called iDecide to better support informed decision-making in labour.[22] While such tools are important, they need to form part of a wider programme of work to create meaningful change. The IMMDS Review highlighted some important points around this, which we believe should inform the Government’s approach in this area: Greater thought needs to be given to help patients better understand risk. Information around consent should be shared in way that is clear and meaningful. Talking to, or hearing from, others who have experienced the same intervention with or without complications could be hugely beneficial and should be considered as part of the informed consent process. Patient decision aids should be validated, standardised for each procedure and be jointly developed with patients, reflecting their experiences and outcomes. Commenting on this issue, Patient Safety Learning’s Chief Executive Helen Hughes said: “All too often, female patients are not given the information needed to make a truly informed decision about their own health. Not only is it unlawful, but it can lead to long-lasting physical and psychological harm. Through its Women’s Health Strategy, the Government has an opportunity to significantly improve informed consent across the NHS, ensuring patients receive consistent access to all the information and options they need in relation to their care. But these changes cannot take place in isolation, they must also form part of a wider change in approach to tackle the persistence of paternalistic attitudes that treat women as passive participants in their care.” Work around informed consent in the Women’s Health Strategy, and this broader culture change, will need to be accompanied with clear leadership, delivery plans and effective resourcing if we are to move towards a safer healthcare system for women. Share your views We would love to hear your thoughts and feedback on the content of this blog. To leave your comments below, please sign up to the hub. If you would like to share your experiences and insights on any of the issues raised, you can also get in touch with the Patient Safety Learning team at content@pslhub.org. Related reading For International Women’s Day 2023, we have picked out seven resources to highlight and evidence some of the key patient safety issues concerning women’s health equity in our latest Top picks article. References Patient Safety Learning. Dangerous exclusions: The risk to patient safety of sex and gender bias, 8 March 2021. Patient Safety Learning. Medicines, research and female hormones: a dangerous knowledge gap, 8 March 2022. International Women’s Day 2023 Theme. Last Accessed 27 February 2023. NHS England. Consent to treatment. Last Accessed 27 February 2023. Julie Smith. Informed consent: what is it? 21 December 2020. UK Supreme Court, Montgomery v Lanarkshire Health Board, 2015. The IMMDS Review. First Do No Harm: The report of the Independent Medicines and Medical Devices Safety Review, 8 July 2020. Patient Safety Commissioner for England. Patient Safety Commissioner: 100 Days Report, 2 February 2023. Patient Safety Learning. Hysteroscopy: 6 calls for action to prevent avoidable harm, 1 March 2023. Campaign Against Painful Hysteroscopy. CAPH Survey Results – Hysteroscopy Action. Last accessed 27 February 2023. Patient Safety Learning’s the hub. Community Forum, Painful Hysteroscopy. Last accessed 1 March 2023. Five X More. The Black Maternity Experiences Survey: A Nationwide Study of Black Women’s Experiences of Maternity Services in the United Kingdom, 24 May 2022. Kath Sansom. ‘Mesh removal surgery is a postcode lotter’ – patients harmed by surgical mesh need accessible, consistent treatment, 2 December 2021. Anonymous. “There’s no problem with the mesh”: A personal account of the struggle to get vaginal mesh removal surgery, 1 May 2022. Patient Safety Learning and Sling the Mesh. Specialist mesh centres are failing to offer adequate support to women harmed by mesh, 25 August 2022. Sophie, Medical trauma from IUD fitting: it’s not just five minutes of pain for five years of gain, 10 January 2022. Sarah Graham. Rebel Bodies: A guide to the gender health gap revolution, 5 January 2023. Caroline Criado Perez. Invisible Women: Exposes data bias in a world designed for men, 5 March 2020. Sarah Graham. Gender bias: A threat to women’s health, 4 August 2020. Department of Health and Social Care. Women’s Health Strategy for England, 30 August 2022. Department of Health and Social Care. Dame Lesley Regan appointed Women’s Health Ambassador, 17 June 2022. iDecide. iDecide: Your birth, your decisions. Last Accessed 2 March 2023.
  11. Content Article
    Key findings One in four teenagers aged 17-19 have a mental health difficulty, an increase from one in six in 2021. Poverty continues to have a strong link to young people’s poor mental health. Reversed patterns of probable mental health difficulty for boys/young men and girls/young women highlights the need for specific gender-specific approaches. Young people with a mental health difficulty are more likely to have negative experience of social media. Young people with a mental health difficulty are more likely to miss school and feel unsafe while at school.
  12. News Article
    April Valentine planned to have a complication-free delivery and to enjoy her life as a first-time parent to a healthy baby girl. Instead, California’s department of health and human services is investigating the circumstances of the April's death during childbirth. April, a 31-year-old Black woman, went to Centinela hospital in Inglewood on 9 January and died the next day. Her daughter Aniya was born via an emergency caesarean section. Her family and friends say that staff at the hospital ignored the pregnant woman’s complaints of pain, refused to let her doula be in the hospital room during the birth and neglected Valentine as her child’s father performed CPR on her. “It’s hard to even sleep, to even look at my child after seeing what I saw in that hospital that night,” said Nigha Robertson, Valentine’s boyfriend and Aniya’s father, to the Los Angeles county board of supervisors during its 31 January meeting. “I’m the only one who touched her, I’m the one who did CPR. Nobody touched her, we screamed and begged for help … they just let her lay there and die.” During the 31 January board of supervisors meeting, people who spoke in support of Valentine said that Centinela hospital is known around the community for being one of the “worst hospitals in the county” for Black and Latina mothers and their infants. Since 2000, the maternal mortality rate in the US has risen nearly 60%, with about 700 people dying during pregnancy or within a year of giving birth each year. More than 80% of the deaths are preventable, according to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The US has the highest maternal mortality rate among industrialized countries and Black women are three times more likely to die during childbirth than white women. Read full story Source: The Guardian, 3 March 2023
  13. News Article
    New research shared with HSJ has ‘laid bare’ the inequalities experienced by medical trainees, with black doctors more likely to perform worse in exams than any other ethnic group. The report published by the General Medical Council (GMC) highlights that UK medical graduates of black or black British heritage have the lowest specialty exam pass rate of all ethnic groups at 62%, which is almost 20 percentage points lower than that of white doctors (79%). It is the first time the medical regulator has split this data by ethnicity, it said. The GMC has pledged to “eliminate discrimination, disadvantage and unfairness” in undergraduate and postgraduate medical education by 2031 and the disproportionate number of fitness to practise complaints received about ethnic minority doctors and doctors who gained their medical qualification outside of the UK by 2026. Read full story (paywalled) Source: HSJ, 2 March 2023